Assisted Reproduction: The use of medical techniques to bring about the conception and birth of a child, including artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, egg, sperm, and embryo donation, and drug therapy.
In vitro Fertilization: A specialized technique by which an ovum is fertilized by sperm outside the body, with the resulting embryo later implanted in the uterus for gestation.
Artificial Insemination: The injection of semen into the vagina or uterus by means of a syringe or other instrument rather than by coitus. If this is done in a medical facility, it is usually referred to as “IUI” or “ICI.” See your doctor for information regarding the different options for artificial insemination.
Known Sperm Donor: A man, who is known to the individual or couple, who donates his sperm for the purposes of inseminating or impregnating a specific woman who is not his sexual partner. Most often, the known sperm donor does not intend to have a parent-child relationship, nor any rights or responsibilities regarding any child born through the use of his donated sperm.
Anonymous Sperm Donor: A man who donates to a sperm bank or other facility for the purposes of inseminating or impregnating a woman (unknown to him) who is not his sexual partner.
“Open” or “Identity Disclosure Donors” – Depending on local law and the policies of the facility, donors may agree to provide identifying information to their offspring in the future (such as when the child turns 18 years old). Intended Parents who are utilizing sperm or egg donation banks or facilities are often encouraged to consider whether they want their donor to be completely anonymous or to have the option for their child to receive identifying information about the donor in the future.
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Known Egg Donor: A woman, who is known the intended parent(s), who provides her own eggs for another woman or couple to use in creating a pregnancy through in vitro fertilization. For a woman to serve as an egg donor, she must undergo health screening tests and take medications to stimulate the production of eggs by her ovaries. She must also undergo a minor surgical procedure known as egg retrieval in order to harvest the eggs from her ovaries.
Anonymous Egg Donor: A woman, who is unknown to the intended parents, who donates her eggs through the use of a private agency or facility for another woman or couple to use in creating a pregnancy through in vitro fertilization. For a woman to serve as an egg donor, she must undergo health screening tests and take medications to stimulate the production of eggs by her ovaries. She must also undergo a minor surgical procedure known as egg retrieval in order to harvest the eggs from her ovaries.
Gestational Carrier: A woman who agrees to carry a fertilized embryo formed from another woman’s egg to completion of pregnancy. Gestational carriers do not intend to have a parent-child relationship with the resulting child, and are expected to release the infant to the genetic/intended parents upon delivery.
Traditional Surrogate: A woman who agrees to carry a fertilized embryo formed from her own egg to completion of pregnancy. Traditional surrogates do not intend to have a parent-child relationship with the resulting child and are expected to release the infant to the intended parents upon delivery. A traditional surrogate, in effect, acts as both known egg donor and surrogate.
NOTE – Surrogacy, and particularly traditional surrogacy, is highly restricted or even illegal in some states. If you are considering using a gestational carrier who lives in or intends to give birth in another state, it is important that you consult with an attorney in that state prior to engaging in any gestational carrier relationship.